Modern chemical synthesis techniques have allowed for improved incorporation of nano‐scale additives into solid propellants. Various. Kumar Ishitha, P. A. Ramakrishna. () Activated charcoal: as burn rate modifier and its mechanism of action in non-metalized composite solid propellants. The combustion of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellants containing ne ammonium perchlo- rate (AP) was investigated using laser-excited, .

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Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant is a composite propellant, meaning that it has both fuel and oxidizer mixed with a rubbery binderall combined into a homogeneous mixture. In opposition to this criteria, in this study, high heating rates were used The temperature dependence of the specific rate constant k is propellamts by the Arrhenius equation:.

Embed this code snippet in the HTML of your website to show this chapter. Kinetic approach The method used in the analysis of composite samples was based on DSC experiments in which the temperatures of the extrapolated onset of the thermal decomposition process and the temperatures of maximum heat flow were determined from the resulting measured curves for exothermic reactions.

Cohen [ 24 ] studied the kinetics of the surface pyrolysis of HTPB and, assuming zero-order kinetics, they found the activation energy of 71 kJ mol Use of APCP outside hobby use is regulated by state and municipal fire codes.

Empirically, APCP adheres fairly well to the following power-function model:.

Propellantts, a particle’s rate of temperature rise is maximized when the particle size is minimized. Due to these attributes, widespread adoption of APCP and related propellant types in the hobby has significantly enhanced the safety of rocketry. The combustion simulation results may be observed in the figure propellans, which show the behavior of AP combustion with different internal pressures of the combustion propellqnts. Conclusions For energetic materials like composite solid propellant, it proopellants critical to use the minimum sample size and low heating rates to avoid the risks to potential damage of pdopellants DSC cell resulting in DSC curves with a lot of interferences caused by the detonation behavior of composite samples.

In addition, the high-power rocketry community regularly uses APCP in the form of commercially available propellant “reloads”, as well as single-use motors. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. In recent years, there has been an explosion of interest in the synthesis, structure, properties, and applications of nanomaterials, mainly because of the fact that materials confined in one or more dimension can exhibit interesting properties, such as catalysis.


During the combustion, at the burning surface, the decomposed gases from the ammonium perchlorate particles and fuel binder HTPB are interdiffused and produce diffusion flame streams. When submitted to a low heating rate, decomposes releasing gases chlorine, nitrogen and oxygen and water in the vapor state; while with a high heating rate stimulus there are instant reactions with high energy release.

The values of the activation energy were found to be In a previous work [ 7 ], these simulations were done, considering a perfectly stirred reactor, different internal pressures and a specific temperature profile. The exothermic events on K and K are due to the proper decomposition of the AP crystal in ammonia and perchloric acid, followed by the formation of chloridric acid and oxygen decomposition of HClO 4according to the reactions below.

The Kissinger method for obtaining the activation energy value was also employed for a comparison propellxnts. Sample masses were about 1.

Effect of the Dispersibility of Nano-CuO Catalyst on Heat Releasing of AP/HTPB Propellant

It differs from many traditional solid rocket propellants such as black powder or zinc-sulfurnot only in chemical composition and overall performance, but also by the nature of how it is processed.

The kneading time of each sample ranged from 1 hour to 5 hours. The combustion mechanism has higher complexity as new components are added, because there are the elementary reactions for each component decomposition and their interactions in chamber, as well as the formation and decomposition of new intermediary species, especially propeellants the flame region. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

Built by scientists, for scientists. This visible signature, among other reasons, led to research in cleaner burning propellants with no visible signatures.

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Every combustion heat data of the three areas is a mean value of three testing data. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Retrieved from ” https: They were both derived from the basic kinetic equations for heterogeneous chemical reactions and therefore have a wide application, as it is not necessary to know the reaction order [ 19 ] or the conversional function to determine the kinetic parameters.

How to cite and reference Link to this chapter Copy to propellnts. Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant is typically used in aerospace propulsion applications, where simplicity and reliability are desired and specific impulses depending on the composition and operating pressure of — seconds are adequate. To achieve different visual effects and flight characteristics, hobby APCP suppliers offer a variety of different characteristic propellant types.


The thermal decomposition of AP may be observed by differential thermal analysis DTA propeellants thermal gravimetry TGin the figure below [ 5 ]. The combustion time of the aluminum particles in the hot combustion gas varies depending on aluminum particle size and shape.

Most catalysts in the composite propellant act on the composition of AP. The temperatures of exothermic peaks, T pcan be used to propellanst the kinetic parameters by the Ozawa method [ 1617 ]. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Ammonium perchlorate NH 4 ClO 4 is a powerful proopellants salt largely used in solid propellant formulations for application in airspace and defense materials industries. The value of STD and RSD of explosion heat decreases with the kneading time less than 3 hours then increases smoothly. Despite these heating rates are not close to the rocket motor chamber conditions heating rates estimated as 10 6 K s -1 the slower heating rates used in this work allow one to get a better insight into the reaction kinetics mechanisms.

For RMS, the APCP ” grains ” cylinders of propellant are loaded into the reusable motor casing along with a sequence of insulator disks hpb o-rings and a graphite or glass-filled phenolic resin nozzle. The DSC curves do not show any interference and the kinetic data obtained using the maximum temperatures reciprocal, in K -1 and the respective heating rates are very close to the results found in the literature, at very lower heating rates [ 26 – 29 ].

The composite propellant was produced in a batch process of 5 kg propeklants pilot plant using a planetary mixer under vacuum atmosphere during 2 hours. Iha January 23rd APCP deflagrates from the surface of exposed propellant in the httpb chamber.

In addition, curing additives induce elastomer binder cross-linking to solidify the propellant before use. The burn rate is heavily dependent on mean AP particle size as the AP absorbs heat to decompose into a gas before it can oxidize the fuel components.