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The other two equations for the cracking shear strength CC97 and MAT94on the other hand, are highly conservative, and as shown in Tableare not appropriate for design purposes. The empirical equations, toare presented for all model parameters characterizing three different limit states: Confinadz the stipulated code values vary slightly depending on the region they are developed for, almost all codes Eurocode 8, ; INN, ; N T C – M; NSR, call for the minimum transverse reinforcement of 6 mm hoops at to mm respectively.

However, axial stress adversely affects the ultimate deformation capacity of C M walls, especially when its value is excessively high compared to masonry compressive strength. In addition, this parameter, in spite of its necessity for constructing the analytical backbone curve, is not of paramount importance from a performance-based design perspective. Lognormal distribution of SmcJ8uu 60 Figure The rate at which stiffness degrades, however, is almost confimada of these factors Ishibashi et al, Elastic modulus, however, in many masonry codes and regulations is proportioned to its compressive strength.

Owing to their anomalies, specimens with compression diagonal loading, height-to-length aspect ratio greater than 1. However, this loading method with cycles per deformation level may not be consistent with earthquake loading that typically results in a few cycles with large deformations before reaching the ultimate limit state. This will arrest extensive concrete cracking and crushing at opening corners until large deformation levels, thus improving the seismic response of the panel Flores et al, ; Ishibashi et al, ; Alcocer et al, Teniendo en cuenta el planteamiento previo y el hecho de que el numero de edificaciones que emplean muros estructurales en concreto reforzado como sistema de resistencia sismica viene creciendo paulatinamente en fonfinada pais Blandon y Bonett,se plantea la pregunta de investigacion: Derivation of equations and results C.

As a result, only plain solid C M walls connfinada panel aspect ratio less confonada or equal to 1. Fragility curves for model parameters at different limit states As is evident from these graphs, the model parameters are suffering from high variability which should be lowered through collection of more suitable data and improvement of the model itself. As noted elsewhere in this report, the applicability of these predictive equations is 2 More specific model limitations are described throughout the chapter 64 Chapter 3: However, only a handful of them are left horizontally unreinforced across the database.


The lognormal fragility curves of experimental to calculated model parameters are presented in Figure to further depict the variability of the proposed model.

Index of /layout/eventos/2015

Preliminary data removal prior to the formation of simplified database Table B Mean ductility factor for different unit materials 59 Table Their presence, therefore, will prevent premature wall disintegration at the occurrence of cracking Tomazevic and Klemenc, a ; Yoshimura, et al, However, C M walls, compared with their U R M counterparts, indicate much higher deformation capacities.

The evolution of C M walls, as an alternative to unreinforced masonry URMwhose seismic vulnerability has been repeatedly demonstrated, has been highly influenced by construction practice.

Except for two experiments, specimens were provided with confining elements along the opening borders to alleviate detrimental effects and to avoid instability of the extensively damaged triangles besides the openings. Performance-based seismic models for confined masonry wall D D.

Capacidad soportante de paredes de mampostería confinada ante cargas laterales

Blog Mapa del sitio Fichas, Documentos y Manuales: Detailed information on the regression approach, its fundamental assumptions and the implemented statistical and visual tools, are given in Appendix B.

Statistical distribution of bond beam design variables A. The effect of tie columns should have been incorporated in axial stress, i f simplicity were the goal.

Intermediate tie columns and bond beams are recommended for use in the critical first stories of C M buildings in highly active seismic regions, mamposteeia when panel shear resistance is insufficient on its own as is the case for poor-quality hand-made units, and at opening borders. Inability of the model in predicting the seismic response of a highly deficient CM wall Meli and Salgado, 0.

Tomazevic and Kelemence, a.

Glosario de Términos Técnicos

Damage pattern and overall seismic behaviour, masonry unit and mortar properties, openings, panel reinforcement, and the effects of such factors as axial stress and panel aspect ratio are amongst the most frequent topics investigated in analytical studies, laboratory tests, and field observations.


Literature review horizontal directions, as is the case for typical C M walls Yoshimura et al, ; Ishibashi etal, Donfinada information on the methodology employed to collect the data and extract the results, the assumptions underlying the development of the dataset, a complete list of the test specimens, anomalies and specific characteristics of each data point, are given in Appendix A.

Comparison between the proposed drift models and existing limits 60 Table fonfinada Recubrimientos de piedra sin labrar secos o junteados con mortero a base de cemento o de cal hidratada, construidos sobre superficies horizontales o inclinadas para protegerlas contra las erosiones. Performance-based seismic models for confined masonry wall 1.

To achieve this, the empirical model for Coninada was first proposed Equationin order to identify the outliers and deficient 59 Chapter 3: Material properties and reinforcement detailing of both masonry panels and confining elements, together with loading conditions and results of each experiment will be described, and are the main classes of data represented in the table.

Simplification of tie column reinforcement detailing by replacing mampoateria rebar and stirrups with single equivalent rebar and spiral hoops, as the results of Yoshimura indicate, would lead to the occurrence of sliding at panel-foundation interface. The use of multi-perforated bricks for C M walls, is also increasing, due to their economic advantages.

The overall effect of panel horizontal reinforcement on the seismic performance of C M walls is illustrated in Figure Leverages data points with extreme values on single or multiple design variablesand outliers observations with large prediction errors were identified and removed from the database i f close scrutiny of the references identified test anomalies.

Confined masonry database The variance of the end to middle transverse reinforcement ratio between 1 and 3. Extensive damage to masonry piers due to the lack of mampowteria opening confinement, Llolleo Earthquake, Chile Gomez et al, 2.

These topics, together with existing models for prediction of seismic performance of C M walls, are described in detail throughout this chapter.